Skip to main content

Table 2 Adjusted associations of socioeconomic, reproductive and lifestyle factors with age at natural menopause (n = 6138)

From: The role of smoking in the relationship between intimate partner violence and age at natural menopause: a mediation analysis

  Age at natural menopause (ANM) (years)
<45
RRR (95% CI)
45–49
RRR (95% CI)
50–51
RRR (95% CI)
52–53
RRR (95% CI)
≥54
RRR (95% CI)
Education level
 No formal qualifications 1.72 (1.11–2.65) 1.36 (1.03–1.81) Reference 0.95 (0.71–1.26) 0.71 (0.54–0.92)
 Less than high school/high school 1.54 (1.08–2.20) 0.96 (0.77–1.20) Reference 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.71 (0.58–0.86)
 Trade/certificate/diploma 1.34 (0.90–2.01) 0.95 (0.74–1.23) Reference 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.76 (0.60–0.95)
 University or higher Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Difficulty on income management
 Easy/not bad/some difficult Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Difficult/impossible 1.47 (1.08–2.02) 1.14 (0.89–1.45) Reference 0.91 (0.71–1.18) 1.10 (0.88–1.38)
Age at menarche (years)
  ≤ 11 1.54 (1.10–2.16) 1.30 (1.03–1.64) Reference 1.09 (0.86–1.37) 1.00 (0.80–1.24)
 12 1.49 (1.10–2.03) 0.95 (0.76–1.18) Reference 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.92 (0.76–1.13)
 13 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 14 1.14 (0.80–1.62) 1.13 (0.90–1.43) Reference 0.94 (0.74–1.18) 1.09 (0.88–1.35)
  ≥ 15 1.34 (0.94–1.91) 1.09 (0.86–1.39) Reference 0.98 (0.77–1.25) 1.18 (0.95–1.46)
Number of children
 0 1.28 (0.87–1.89) 1.32 (1.00–1.73) Reference 1.00 (0.76–1.34) 0.83 (0.63–1.08)
 1 1.04 (0.71–1.52) 1.16 (0.89–1.51) Reference 0.86 (0.65–1.14) 0.86 (0.66–1.11)
 2–3 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
  ≥ 4 0.99 (0.73–1.35) 0.97 (0.78–1.20) Reference 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 0.94 (0.77–1.15)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<18.5) 1.27 (0.57–2.83) 1.36 (0.77–2.40) Reference 1.18 (0.65–2.14) 0.92 (0.51–1.65)
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Overweight (25–29.9) 1.10 (0.85–1.42) 1.06 (0.89–1.27) Reference 1.12 (0.94–1.34) 1.34 (1.14–1.58)
 Obese (≥30) 1.03 (0.75–1.41) 1.08 (0.87–1.34) Reference 1.10 (0.88–1.37) 1.26 (1.03–1.55)
Perceived stress
 No (stress scores <1) Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Yes (stress scores ≥1) 1.15 (0.88–1.50) 1.12 (0.93–1.36) Reference 0.94 (0.77–1.14) 1.00 (0.83–1.19)
Smoking status
 Never Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Ex-smoker 1.21 (0.93–1.57) 0.88 (0.74–1.05) Reference 0.90 (0.76–1.07) 0.93 (0.80–1.09)
 Current smoker, <10 cigarettes/day 1.69 (0.98–2.92) 0.84 (0.54–1.30) Reference 0.86 (0.56–1.32) 0.73 (0.49–1.10)
 Current smoker, 10–19 cigarettes/day 2.00 (1.22–3.27) 1.13 (0.77–1.67) Reference 0.80 (0.53–1.23) 0.69 (0.46–1.03)
 Current smoker, ≥20 cigarettes/day 2.98 (2.11–4.20) 1.71 (1.30–2.25) Reference 0.82 (0.59–1.12) 0.81 (0.61–1.09)
  1. Data are presented as relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using multinomial logistic regression models, and all RRRs (95% CI) were adjusted for the covariates listed in the table