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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of women according to their history of intimate partner violence (n = 6138)

From: The role of smoking in the relationship between intimate partner violence and age at natural menopause: a mediation analysis

  History of intimate partner violence (IPV)
No
(n = 5206, 84.8%)
Yes
(n = 932, 15.2%)
Crude
OR (95% CI)
Adjusteda
OR (95% CI)
Area of residence
 Urban 1913 (36.7) 307 (32.9) Reference Reference
 Rural/remote 3293 (63.3) 625 (67.1) 1.18 (1.02–1.37) 1.25 (1.06–1.47)
Education level
 No formal qualifications 666 (12.8) 168 (18.0) 1.90 (1.48–2.44) 1.74 (1.32–2.30)
 Less than high school/high school 2497 (48.0) 468 (50.2) 1.41 (1.14–1.74) 1.45 (1.15–1.82)
 Trade/certificate/diploma 1102 (21.2) 171 (18.3) 1.17 (0.91–1.49) 1.21 (0.93–1.58)
 University or higher 941 (18.1) 125 (13.4) Reference Reference
Difficulty on income management
 Easy/not bad/some difficult 4685 (90.0) 701 (75.2) Reference Reference
 Difficult/impossible 521 (10.0) 231 (24.8) 2.96 (2.49–3.53) 1.66 (1.36–2.02)
Marital status
 Married/de facto 4548 (87.5) 606 (65.1) Reference Reference
 Separated/divorced 399 (7.7) 272 (29.2) 5.12 (4.29–6.10) 4.29 (3.55–5.20)
 Widowed 97 (1.9) 18 (1.9) 1.39 (0.84–2.32) 1.30 (0.76–2.23)
 Single 156 (3.0) 35 (3.8) 1.68 (1.16–2.45) 2.27 (1.45–3.57)
Age at menarche (years)
  ≤ 11 883 (17.0) 184 (19.7) 1.23 (1.00–1.52) 1.10 (0.88–1.38)
 12 1109 (21.3) 178 (19.1) 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.92 (0.74–1.15)
 13 1526 (29.3) 258 (27.7) Reference Reference
 14 899 (17.3) 144 (15.5) 0.95 (0.76–1.18) 0.94 (0.74–1.19)
  ≥ 15 789 (15.2) 168 (18.0) 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 1.18 (0.94–1.48)
Number of children
 0 458 (8.8) 54 (5.8) 0.74 (0.55–1.00) 0.61 (0.43–0.86)
 1 426 (8.2) 106 (11.4) 1.56 (1.24–1.97) 1.31 (1.02–1.69)
 2–3 3586 (68.9) 571 (61.3) Reference Reference
  ≥ 4 736 (14.1) 201 (21.6) 1.72 (1.43–2.05) 1.55 (1.28–1.89)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<18.5) 90 (1.7) 16 (1.7) 1.03 (0.60–1.77) 0.79 (0.44–1.44)
 Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 2802 (53.8) 482 (51.7) Reference Reference
 Overweight (25–29.9) 1494 (28.7) 243 (26.1) 0.95 (0.80–1.12) 0.92 (0.77–1.10)
 Obese (≥30) 820 (15.8) 191 (20.5) 1.35 (1.13–1.63) 1.24 (1.02–1.53)
 Median BMI (Q1, Q3) 24.5 (22.1, 27.7) 24.6 (22.3, 28.7)   
Perceived stress
 No (stress scores <1) 4245 (81.5) 581 (62.3) Reference Reference
 Yes (stress scores ≥1) 961 (18.5) 351 (37.7) 2.67 (2.30–3.10) 2.03 (1.72–2.40)
 Median stress scores (Q1, Q3) 0.5 (0.2, 0.8) 0.7 (0.4, 1.2)   
Smoking status
 Never 3048 (58.5) 360 (38.6) Reference Reference
 Ex-smoker 1469 (28.2) 316 (33.9) 1.82 (1.55–2.14) 1.73 (1.45–2.05)
 Current smoker, <10 cigarettes/day 146 (2.8) 50 (5.4) 2.90 (2.07–4.07) 2.52 (1.75–3.63)
 Current smoker, 10–19 cigarettes/day 178 (3.4) 47 (5.0) 2.24 (1.59–3.14) 1.80 (1.25–2.58)
 Current smoker, ≥20 cigarettes/day 365 (7.0) 159 (17.1) 3.69 (2.97–4.58) 2.77 (2.19–3.51)
  1. Data are presented as n (%), median (interquartile range) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using logistic regression models. Q1, 25th percentile; Q3, 75th percentile
  2. aAdjusted model was adjusted for all the covariates listed in the table