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Table 1 Longitudinal cohort summary of depressive symptom incidence

From: The course of depressive symptoms during the postmenopause: a review

Cohort Details   SubSample characteristics Follow-Up Type and Duration Sample and Assessment of Depression Definition of Postmenopause/ PoM Range Results
Penn Ovarian Ageing Study (POAS)Baseline cross section 436 women 35-47 yrs, from Pennsylvania USA, recruited 1996. Freeman et al., 2004 [33]. PoM n = 11 Six assessments at eight month intervals over four years. Depressive symptoms: STRAW PoM Maximum Duration: 11 years CESD mean score 10.6 (pre 12.7, early transition 14.6, late transition 13.1)
CESD < 16 vs ≥16
Depressive Disorder: Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD).
Diagnosis of MDD <1 %
  Freeman et al., 2014 [34]. PoM n = 203 Longitudinal; 14 year FU Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16; ≥16;≥25. STRAW + 10; PoM Maximum Duration: 14 years CESD of 16 or greater decreased approximately 15 % each year following FMP.
Depressive Disorder: Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD).
Also included analysis using years since FMP as reference.
OR for risk of depressive symptoms highest for first two years following FMP.
~35 % of women with a history of depression reported high scores in each postmenopausal year compared to 0-15 % of women with no history.
Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)Baseline cross section 16,065 women 40-55 yrs, from 7 geographic Bromberger, et al., 2007 [35]. n = 2885 (25 % PoM) Longitudinal; 5 yr FU Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16 vs ≥16 WHO PoM Maximum Duration: 6 years OR of having CESD score ≥16 in postmenopause (1.57) → significantly higher than premenopause.
PoM n = ~721
regions across the USA, recruited 1995-1997. Bromberger et al., 2010 [11]. n = 3296 (66 % PoM) PoM n = ~2175 Longitudinal; 8 yr FU Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16 vs ≥16 WHO; STRAW PoM Maximum Duration: 9 years OR of having CESD score ≥16 in postmenopause (1.79) → significantly higher than premenopause.
  Bromberger et al., 2011 [13]. n = 221 Ancillary SWAN study – Mental Health Study (MHS) – Pittsburgh site. PoM n = 131 Longitudinal; 10 yr FU Major Depressive Episode: SCID Early PoM: (≤2 yrs amenorrheic) PoM 9.8 %.
Early PoM significantly greater risk for MDE than premenopause
Late PoM: (≥2 yrs amenorrheic)
PoM Maximum Duration: 11 years
  Joffe et al., 2012 [26]. n = 425 Ancillary SWAN study (MHS) Pittsburgh site. Longitudinal; 6 yr FU Past or current Depressive Disorder: SCID WHO PoM Maximum Duration: 7 years PoM: 64/151 (42.4 %) met criteria
Surgical PoM: 12/38 (31.6 %) met criteria
PoM n = 151 Surgical PoM n = 38
Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project (MWMHP)/Women’s Healthy Ageing Study (WHAP) Baseline cross-section 2001 Dennerstein et al., 2004 [10]. 314 women PoM = 207 Surgical PoM = 39 Longitudinal; initial year of CESD assessment 1991. FU 11 years. Depressive symptoms: CESD(Brief) < 10 vs ≥10 STRAW PoM Maximum Duration: 11 years CESD ≥ 10
PoM: 22 %
Surgical PoM: 42 %
Mean CESD Score:
PoM: 6.7
Surgical PoM: 8.7
women aged 45-55 yrs, from Melbourne Australia, recruited 1990-1991. Ryan et al., 2009 [5]. PoM = 138 Longitudinal; 2 yr FU Depressive symptoms: CESD(Brief) < 10 vs ≥10 STRAW PoM Maximum Duration: 13 years CESD ≥ 10
PoM: 25.4 %
2002 compared to 2004.
Seattle Midlife Women’s Health Study (SMWHS) Baseline cross section 508 (35-55 yrs mean age 41 yrs), from Seattle USA, recruited 1990-1992. Woods et al., 2008 [39]. PoM n = 87 Baseline and 15 year FU. Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16 vs ≥16 STRAW Early PoM: 5 yrs from FMP No significant difference in CESD score between menopausal stages.
PoM Maximum Duration: 5 years
Small but significant decrease of 0.10 in CESD score each year.
Eindhoven Perimenopausal Osteoporosis Study (EPOS) Baseline recruitment 1994 -1995. Women born between 1941 and 1947 from Eindhoven, Netherlands. Maartens et al., 2002 [18]. T1: 1995 PoM: n = 646 Assessment in 1995 and 1998, approximately 3.5 years apart. Depressive symptoms: Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) < 12 vs ≥12 Amenorrhea for at least one year. T1 N = 646 - Mean EDS: 7.8
T2: 1998 PoM n = 1379 PoM Maximum Duration: unknown EDS > 12 -- > 24.2 %
T2 N = 1379 - Mean EDS 7.7 EDS >12 -- > 25.7 %
The Manitoba Project— Baseline cross section 2500 (40-59 yrs),from Manitoba Canada, recruited 1982-1985. Kaufert, Gilbert & Hassard, 1988 [41]. T1-T6 PoM;. Baseline and 3 years FU with 6 monthly contact. 6 time points. Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16 vs ≥16 12 months without menstruation. No significant difference in CESD score between menopausal stages.
n = 5, 5, 18, 24, 29, 35
PoM Maximum Duration: 3 years
  Kaufert, Gilbert & Tate, 1992 [42]. T1-T5 PoM. First five time points. Depressive symptoms: CESD < 16 vs ≥16 12 months without menstruation. Relative odds of depression (compared to pre and peri):
n = 5, 5, 18, 24, 29
PoM Maximum Duration: 2.5 years
Non-depressed PoM: 0.87
Depressive history PoM: 0.84
Hysterectomised non-depressed PoM: 1.7
Hysterectomised depressive history PoM: 0.84
  1. Prevalence ratings of depressive symptoms or major depressive disorder by cohort. Original cohort baseline details provided furthest left. Details of subsample of cohort used for each article reported separately for purposes of clarity
  2. PoM – postmenopause; ~ - approximately; SurPoM – surgical postmenopause; FU – Follow-up; T - Time point; CESD – Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; SCID - Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders; OR – odds ratio